Volume 17, Issue 1 (6-2020)                   JSDP 2020, 17(1): 61-78 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Fahmi A, Shamsi M, Rouni H. Anthropometric Analysis of Face using Local Gaussian Distribution Fitting Applicable for Facial Surgery. JSDP. 2020; 17 (1) :61-78
URL: http://jsdp.rcisp.ac.ir/article-1-868-en.html
Sahand University of Technology
Abstract:   (1130 Views)
Human facial plays a very important role in the human’s appearance. Many defects in the face affect the facial appearance, significantly. Facial plastic surgeries can correct the defects on the face. Analysis of facial color images is very important due to its numerous applications in facial surgeries. Different types of facial surgeries, such as Rhinoplasty, Otoplasty, Belpharoplasty and chin augmentation are performed on the face to make beautiful structure. Rhinoplasty and Otoplasty are widely used in the facial plastic surgeries. the former is performed to correct air passage, correct structural defects, and make a beautiful structure on bone, cartilage, and soft nasal tissue. Also, the latter is performed to correct defects in the ear area. Development of different tools in the field of facial surgery analysis can help surgeons before and after surgery. The main purpose of this study is the anthropometry analysis of facial soft tissue based on image processing methods applicable to Rhinoplasty and Otoplasty surgeries. The proposed method includes three parts.; (1) contour detection, (2) feature extraction, and (3) feature selection. An Active Contour Model (ACM) based on Local Gaussian Distribution Fitting (LGDF) has been used to extract contours from facial lateral view and ear area. The LGDF model is a region-based model which unlike other models such as the Chan-Vese (CV) model is not sensitive to the inhomogeneity of image spatial intensity. Harris Corner Detector (HCD) has been applied to extracted contour for feature extraction. HCD is a method based on calculating of auto-correlation matrix and changing the gray value. In this study, dataset of orthogonal stereo imaging system of Sahand University of Technology (SUT), Tabriz, Iran has been used. After detecting facial key points, metrics of facial profile view and ear area have been measured. In analysis of profile view, 7 angles used in the Rhinoplasty have been measured. Analysis of ear anthropometry includes measuring the length, width and external angle. In the Rhinoplasty analysis, accuracy of the proposed method was about %90 in the all measurement parameters, as well as, it was %96.432, %97.423 and %85.546 in the Otoplasty analysis for measuring in the length, width and external angle of the ear on AMI database, respectively. Using the proposed system in planning of facial plastic surgeries can help surgeons in the Rhinoplasty and Otoplasty analysis. This research can be very effective in developing simulation and evaluation systems for the mentioned surgeries.
Full-Text [PDF 6845 kb]   (246 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Paper
Received: 2018/05/24 | Accepted: 2019/07/10 | Published: 2020/06/21 | ePublished: 2020/06/21

1. [1] M.Shamsi, R. A. Zoroofi, C. Lucas, M. S. Hasanabadi, and M. R. Alsharif, " Automatic Facial Skin Segmentation based on EM Algorithm under Varying Illumination", IEICE Transaction on Information and Systems, vol. 91(5), pp. 1543-1551,‌ 2008. [DOI:10.1093/ietisy/e91-d.5.1543]
2. [2] S. C. Matz, and R. J. de Figueiredo, "A nonlinear image contrast sharpening approach based on Munsell's scale", IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 15(4), pp. 900-909, 2006. [DOI:10.1109/TIP.2005.863935] [PMID]
3. [3] M. Mohammadi Dashti, M. Harouni, "Smile and Laugh Expression Detection Based on Local Minimum Key Points", JSDP, vol.15 (2): pp.69-88, 2018. [DOI:10.29252/jsdp.15.2.69]
4. [4] S. Prabahar and K. U. K. Devi, "An optimistic approach for plastic surgery face recognition", Journal of Research in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 3(3), pp. 38-43, ‌ 2014.
5. [5] S. Roy, and S. K. Bandyopadhyay, "A Comparative Study between PCA and SOM for Plastic Surgery Face Recognition", International Journal of Science and Research, vol. 4, pp. 1473-1478, 2015.‌
6. [6] M. Mun, and A. Deorankar, "Implementation of plastic surgery face recognition using multimodal biometric features". Int. J. Comput. Sci. Inform. Technol, vol. 5(3), 2014, pp. 3711-3715.‌
7. [7] L. G. Farkas, M. J. Katic, and C. R. Forrest, "Comparison of craniofacial measurements of young adult African-American and North American white males and females". Annals of plastic surgery, vol. 59(6), 2007, pp. 692-698.‌ [DOI:10.1097/01.sap.0000258954.55068.b4] [PMID]
8. [8] J. P. Porter and K. L. Olson, "Anthropometric facial analysis of the African American woman". Archives of facial plastic surgery, vol. 3(3), 2001, pp. 191-197.‌ [DOI:10.1001/archfaci.3.3.191] [PMID]
9. [9] J. P. Porter, "The average African American male face: an anthropometric analysis", Archives of facial plastic surgery, vol. 6(2), 2004, pp. 78-81.‌ [DOI:10.1001/archfaci.6.2.78] [PMID]
10. [10] L. G. Farkas, M. J. Katic and C. R. Forrest, "International anthropometric study of facial morphology in various ethnic groups/races", Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, vol. 16(4), pp. 615-646,‌ 2005. [DOI:10.1097/01.scs.0000171847.58031.9e] [PMID]
11. [11] T. Ozkul, and M. H. Ozkul, "A study towards fuzzy logic-based assessment of nasal harmony of rhinoplasty patients", Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 343(4-5), 2006, pp. 329-339.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.jfranklin.2005.12.003]
12. [12] https://www.seattlechildrens.org.
13. [13] K. Sinko, R. Jagsch, B. Benes, G. Millesi, F. Fischmeister, and R. Ewers, "Facial aesthetics and the assignment of personality traits before and after orthognathic surgery", International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery, vol. 41(4), pp. 469-476,‌ 2012. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijom.2011.10.026] [PMID]
14. [14] P. M. Prendergast, "Facial Proportions," In Advanced Surgical Facial Rejuvenation, 2012, pp. 15-22. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-17838-2_2]
15. [15] S. Pattanaik and S. Pathuri, "Establishment of aesthetic soft tissue norms for Southern India population: A photogrammetric study". Ortho-dontic Journal of Nepal, vol. 4(1), pp. 29-35, ‌ 2014. [DOI:10.3126/ojn.v4i1.11308]
16. [16] F. B. Naini, M. T. Cobourne, F. McDonald and D. Wertheim, "Aesthetic impact of the upper component of the nasolabial angle: a quanti-tative investigation", Journal of Oral and Maxi-llofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology, vol. 27(4), pp. 470-476.‌ 2015. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajoms.2014.05.004]
17. [17] C. Eliakim-Ikechukwu, A. Ekpo, M. Etika, C. Ihentuge, and O. Mesembe, "Facial aesthetic angles of the Ibo and Yoruba ethnic groups of Nigeria", IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci, vol. 5, pp. 14-17, 2013.‌ [DOI:10.9790/3008-0551417]
18. [18] E. B. Handler, T. Song and C. Shih, "Complications of otoplasty", Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics, vol. 21(4), 2013, pp. 653-662.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.fsc.2013.08.001] [PMID]
19. [19] S. Stal, M. Klebuc and M.Spira, "An algorithm for otoplasty", Operative Tech-niques in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 4(3), 1997, pp. 88-103.‌ [DOI:10.1016/S1071-0949(97)80002-9]
20. [20] D. G. Becker, S. S. Lai, I.Schipor, and S. S. Becker, "Analysis in otoplasty". Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics, vol. 11(3), 2003, pp. 297-305.‌ [DOI:10.1016/S1064-7406(03)00017-8]
21. [21] Gutowski, K. A. "Grabb & Smith's Plastic Surgery", Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 120(2), 2007, pp. 570.‌ [DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000238227.88345.ae]
22. [22] M. A. Bakhshali nd M. Shamsi, "Estimating facial angles using Radon transform," Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 23(3), pp. 804-812, 2015. [DOI:10.3906/elk-1302-87]
23. [23] Bakhshali, M. A., Shamsi, M., and Golzarfar, A. "Facial color image enhancement for aesthetic surgery blepharoplasty". In Industrial Elec-tronics and Applications, IEEE Symposium, 2012, pp. 351-354.‌ [DOI:10.1109/ISIEA.2012.6496659]
24. [24] Le-Tien, T., and Pham-Chi, H. "An Approach for Efficient Detection of Cephalometric Land-marks", Procedia Computer Science, vol. 37, 2014, pp. 293-300.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.procs.2014.08.044]
25. [25] H. Taghizadeh and S. Haghypour, "Perform Cephalometric Analysis on the Cephalogram Images with Active Appearance Model," Iranian Machine Vision and Image Processing Con-ference, vol. 8, 2013, pp. 169-173.
26. [26] M. Kass, A. Witkin and D. Terzopoulos, "Snakes: Active contour models", International journal of computer vision, vol. 1(4), pp. 321-331,‌ 1998. [DOI:10.1007/BF00133570]
27. [27] M. B. Gharsallah and E. B. Braiek, "Automatic local Gaussian distribution fitting level set active contour for welding flaw extraction", In Image Processing, Applications and Systems, 2016, pp. 1-5. [DOI:10.1109/IPAS.2016.7880117]
28. [28] C. Li, C. Xu, C. Gui and M. D. Fox, "Distance regularized level set evolution and its application to image segmentation", IEEE transactions on image processing, vol. 19(12), pp. 3243, ‌ 2010. [DOI:10.1109/TIP.2010.2069690] [PMID]
29. [29] L. Wang, L. He, A. Mishra and C. Li, "Active contours driven by local Gaussian distribution fitting energy", Signal Processing, vol. 89(12), pp. 2435-2447,‌ 2009. [DOI:10.1016/j.sigpro.2009.03.014]
30. [30] T. F. Chan and L. A. Vese, "Active contours without edges," IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, vol. 10(2), pp. 266-277, 2001. [DOI:10.1109/83.902291] [PMID]
31. [31]http://www.ctim.es/research_works/ami_ear_database/.
32. [32] M. Woods, R.G.a, "Digital image processing", Ed. 2nd, Prentice Hall. 2002.
33. [33] W. Peng, X. Hongling, L.Wenlin and S. Wenlong, "Harris Scale Invariant Corner Detection Algorithm Based on the Significant Region", International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, vol. 9(3), pp. 413-420,‌ 2016. [DOI:10.14257/ijsip.2016.9.3.35]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Signal and Data Processing