Volume 16, Issue 2 (9-2019)                   JSDP 2019, 16(2): 121-136 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ghazi-Maghrebi S, khordadpoor A. Using WPT as a New Method Instead of FFT for ‌Improving the Performance of OFDM Modulation. JSDP 2019; 16 (2) :121-136
URL: http://jsdp.rcisp.ac.ir/article-1-657-en.html
Islamic Azad University, Yadgar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahr-e-Ray
Abstract:   (3113 Views)

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is used in order to provide immunity against very hostile multipath channels in many modern communication systems.. The OFDM technique divides the total available frequency bandwidth into several narrow bands. In conventional OFDM, FFT algorithm is used to provide orthogonal subcarriers. Intersymbol interference (ISI) and intercarrier interference (ICI) impairements are caused by time domain rectangular windowed sine and cosine basis functions. FFT-OFDM is a very popular multi–carrier modulation (MCM) technique. It has some interesting features such as low complex modulation/demodulation implementation, simple and fast frequency domain channel estimation/ equalization. Also, by transmitting data over different parallel frequencies, FFT-OFDM has spectrum efficiency due to overlapped sub-channels and immunity against fading channels. Unfortunately, FFT-OFDM has serious drawbacks i.e. high sensitivity to ISI and ICI which caused by time domain rectangular windowed sine and cosine basis functions and their high level side lobes in frequency domain. For this purpose, cyclic prefixes (CP) are added at the beginning of the OFDM symbols and this causes bandwidth and power inefficiencies.
In order to provide more efficient MCM technique, besides preserving the advantages of conventional FFT-OFDM, discrete wavelet modulation (DWM) and wavelet packet modulation (WPM) have been introduced in recent years. Therefore, it is possible to use time domain equalization (TEQ) or overlap frequency domain equalization (overlap FEQ) to reduce the interferences effectively in the absence of CP. Although TEQ techniques are more complicate than FEQ in conventional OFDM, WPT-OFDM has bandwidth and power enhanced efficiencies and this makes it so appropriate for digital communication systems.
In recent years, several studies have been done on the wavelet theory, wavelet and WPM modulation in comparison with FFT-OFDM. Because of the good performance of WPT, a number of studies are still on the performance of WPT in hostile channels with more details. Also, there are a number of studies about various kinds of FEQ and TEQ such as zero force (ZF) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) in the peresence of AWGN and some fading channels. These researches also contain the comparison of FEQ for FFT-OFDM and overlap FEQ for WPT-OFDM.
Todays, 3GPP standard is spread in different domains like 3G, 4G and LTE-A technologhies. In this paper, all the parameters are chosen according to 3GPP standards. For demonstrating the benefits of discrete WPT, two OFDM modulation schemes, i.e. FFT-OFDM and WPT-OFDM with two applied channels i.e. 6-tap rural area (RA6) and 6-tap typical urban (TU6) channels are considered. The performance of  two systems are investigated by the measure of bit error rate (BER) in different SNRs(dB). Also, Wavelet families i.e. Haar, Daubechies6 , Symlet5 and Coiflet5 are compared with FFT in OFDM system with QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM constellation mappings. In the receiver side, FEQ is used in FFT-OFDM and overlap FEQ is used in WPT-OFDM to equalize multipath fading channels. This is a comprehensive comparison between FFT-OFDM and WPT-OFDM with different constellations, a number of wavelet families, different equalizer with two applied channels in order to implement a real environment. The simulation results demonstrate performance improvement of the system using WPT-OFDM scheme. In order to evaluate the performance of these two OFDM techniques, the required SNRs for reaching BER =10-3 are extracted and compared for both systems. It was observed that one can obtain better performance by using Haar wavelets as orthogonal basis function rather than FFT in OFDM modulation.  We achieved better performance by using Haar wavelets rather than FFT in OFDM modulation. As a result, WPT-OFDM can be applied , with better performance, in different OFDM-based applied technologhies such as DAB( Digital Audio Broadcast), WiMAX( worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), DVB( Digital Video Broadcast).

Full-Text [PDF 3968 kb]   (1391 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Paper
Received: 2017/03/15 | Accepted: 2019/06/19 | Published: 2019/09/17 | ePublished: 2019/09/17

1. [1] M. N. Mohanty and S. Mishra, "Design of MCM based wireless system using wavelet packet network & its PAPR analysis", IEEE Inter-national Conference of Circuits, Power and Computing Technologies, ICCPCT, 2013, pp. 821 - 824. [DOI:10.1109/ICCPCT.2013.6528867]
2. [2] D. Karamehmedovic, M. K. Lakshmanan and H. Nikookar, "Performance of wavelet packet modulation and OFDM in the presence of carrier frequency and phase noise", in European Conference of Wireless Technology, EuWiT, 2008, pp.166-169.
3. [3] R. Asif, A.Hussaini, R. Abd-Alhameed, S. Jones, J. Noras, E. Elkhazmi and J. Rodriguez, "Performance of different wavelet families using DWT and DWPT-Channel equalization using ZF and MMSE", in IEEE Conference of Design and Test Symposium, IDT, 2013, pp. 1-6. [DOI:10.1109/IDT.2013.6727136]
4. [4] F. Khordadpour-Deylamani, S. Ghazi-Maghrebi, "A Comprehensive Comparison and Evaluation of WPT and FFT Orthogonalization schemes in OFDM Multicarrier Transmission", Majlesi Journal of Multimedia Processing, PP. 23-27, Vol. 4, December 2015.
5. [5] S. Buddhacharya and P. Saengudomlert, "Bit loading for wavelet packet modulation using time-domain equalization", Electrical Engineering Congress (iEECON), 2017 International, 2017. [DOI:10.1109/IEECON.2017.8075833]
6. [6] S. Banerjee, Prof. A. Jeyakumar, and V. Nar, "Wavelet packet modulation for mobile communication", International Journal of Engi-neering Research and Applications (IJERA) , vol. 3, Issue 2, pp.1016-1022, March -April 2013.
7. [7] K. Anoh, R. Abd-Alhameed , J. Noras and and S. Jones "Wavelet packet transform modulation for multiple input multiple output applications", International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 63, pp.1-5, February 2013. [DOI:10.5120/10482-5221]
8. [8] H. Taha, and M. F. Salleh, "Performance analysis of QAM-modulation parameters on wavelet packet transform (WPT) and FFT-OFDM system", in IEEE 9th Malaysia International Conference on Communications, 2009, pp. 1-5. [DOI:10.1109/MICC.2009.5431470] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. [9] V. M.B and M.N.Shanmukha Swamy , "Design & implementation of optimized DMWT architecture for OFDM on FPGA", Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovations in Electrical and Electronics Engineering, ICIEE 2012, 2012,pp. 263-267.
10. [10] A. Lindsey, "Wavelet Packet Modulation for orthogonally transmultiplexed communications," IEEE Transaction On Signal Processing, vol. 45, pp. 1336-1339, May 1997. [DOI:10.1109/78.575704]
11. [11] A. Jamin and P. Mahonen, "Wavelet packet modulation for wireless communications", Wir-eless Communications & Mobile Com-puting Journal, vol. 5, pp. 1-18, MARCH 2005. [DOI:10.1002/wcm.201]
12. [12] F. Farrukh, S. Baig, M. J. Mughal, "Performance comparison of DFT-OFDM and wavelet-OFDM with zero-forcing equalizer for FIR channel equalization", Proceedings of the International conference of Electrical Engineering (ICEE) , pp. 1-5, 2007. [DOI:10.1109/ICEE.2007.4287350]
13. [13] X. Yu, X. Zhang and G. Bi, "MMSE equalization for discrete wavelet packet based OFDM", Proceedings of the IEEE Third International conference of Electrical Engineering (ICEE) , pp. 1 - 4 , 2009.
14. [14] A. Khan and S. Baig "Channel equalization for discrete savelet multitone transceiver in wireline channels", Proceedings of the 9th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology (IBCAST) , pp. 394 - 398, 2012. [DOI:10.1109/IBCAST.2012.6177586] [PMID]
15. [15] A. Ghaith, R. Hatoum, H. Mrad ,and A. Alaeddine, "Performance analysis of the wavelet-OFDM new scheme in AWGN channel", Proceeding of the IEEE Conference on Communications and Information Technology (ICCIT) , pp. 225 - 229, 2013. [DOI:10.1109/ICCITechnology.2013.6579554]
16. [16] S. R. Band, M. S. Dorle, S. S. Dorle, "BER performance of WIMAX system using wavelet packet modulation technique", Proceeding of the World Conference on Futuristic Trends in Research and Innovation for Social Welfare. WCFTR'16, 2016 , pp.1-5. [DOI:10.1109/STARTUP.2016.7583917] [PMCID]
17. [17] Y. Ben-Ezra, D. Dahan, S. Zarkovsky, and B.I. Lembrikov, "High spectral efficiency (SE) OFDM system based on multi-wavelet packets", Proceeding of the 17th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, ICTON, 2015, pp.1-4. [DOI:10.1109/ICTON.2015.7193330]
18. [18] Y. MA, K. LIU , AND W. SU, "Simulation and Implementation of Wavelet Packet Multi-Carrier Modulation Technique", Proceeding of the IEEE Conference on 4th International Conference on Wireless Communications, Net-working and Mobile Computing, 2008, PP.1-4. [DOI:10.1109/WiCom.2008.387]
19. [19] L. Wang and B. Nowrouzian, " Development of a post-detection equalization technique for multicarrier modulation/demodulation systems", Proceeding of the IEEE Conference on The 45th Midwest Symposium Circuits and Systems, MWSCAS, pp. 200- 203 , 2002.
20. [20] K. Fazel , S. Kaiser, Multi-Carrier , and Spread Spectrum Systems, Wiley Editorial Office , pp. 24-30.
21. [21] Y. Guo, "Wavelet Packet Transform-based Time of Arrival Estimation Method for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Ultra-Wideband Signal", IET Science, Measurement & Technology Journal, pp.344-350 , April 2015. [DOI:10.1049/iet-smt.2013.0226]
22. [22] M. Alimosaymer and R. Mohseni, "Systematic approach in designing wavelet packet modulation-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing radar signal by applying the criterion of least-squares", IET Signal Process Journals & Magazines, vol. 8, pp. 475-482, July 2014. [DOI:10.1049/iet-spr.2013.0228]
23. [23] M. Khalilzade, H. Doustdar Noghabi, "Evaluation of blood flow to tissue in the trapezius muscle region by analyzing the wavelet of optical volumetric signal using the neural network", Journal of Data and Signal Processing, Vol. 13, pp. 25-33, 2016.
24. [24] F. Fesahat, P. Peivandi, "Parametric and structural extraction of sinew tissue by using wavelet-fuzzy method and genetic algorithm", Journal of Data and Signal Processing, Vol. 12, Issue 4, pp. 67, 2016.
25. [25] L. Polak, T. Kratochvil," Simulation and measurement of the transmission distortions of digital television DVB-T/H part 3: Transmission in fading channels", Radio engineering, vol. 19, pp. 703-711, 2010.
26. [26] W. Saad, N. El-Fishawy, S. El-Rabaie, and M. Shokair, An Efficient Technique for OFDM System Using Discrete Wavelet Transform, vol. 6104. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, pp. 533-541. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-13067-0_55]
27. [27] S. Cao, Yuan F. Zheng and R.Ewing ,"Wavelet-based radar waveform adaptable for different operation conditions",IEEE Conf. EuRAD, European, pp. 149 - 152 ,2013.
28. [28] W. Jones, "Multi-scale Wavelet Modulation", in System Theory: Proceeding of 26th Southeastern Symposium IEEE Conference, pp. 576 - 580, 1994.
29. [29] G. Strang and T. Q. Nguyen, Wavelet and Filter Banks, 2nd ed., Wellesley-Cambridge Press, 1996, pp. 29-30.
30. [30] M. K. Lakshmanan and H. Nikookar, "A review of wavelets for digital wireless communication", Wireless Personal Communication Journal, vol. 37, pp. 387-420 , May 2006. [DOI:10.1007/s11277-006-9077-y]
31. [31] V. Mittal, Y. Gautam, R. K. Mallik and S. D. Joshi, "Analysis of wavelet modulation in frequency-selective fading", IEEE Trans-actions On Vehicular Technology Journal, vol. 56, pp. 3818-3826, November 2007. [DOI:10.1109/TVT.2007.901952]
32. [32] M. Suma1, S. Narasimhan ,and B. Kanmani1, "Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing peak-toaverage power ratio reduction by best tree selection using coded discrete cosine harmonic wavelet packet transform", IET Journals & Magazines, vol. 8, pp. 1875 - 1882, July 2014. [DOI:10.1049/iet-com.2013.1103]
33. [33] Z. Tong, Y. Wang, Z. Guo , "The PAPR Reduction Techniques based on WPT for CO-OFDM Systems", Proceeding of the 15thInter-national Conference on Optical Communi-cations and Networks, ICOCN, 2016, pp. 1-3. [DOI:10.1109/ICOCN.2016.7875782] [PMCID]
34. [34] J. Zakaria, M. F. M. Salleh, "PAPR reduction scheme: wavelet packetbased PTS with embedded side information data scheme", IET Communi-cations Journals, vol. 11, pp. 127-135, December 2016. [DOI:10.1049/iet-com.2016.0101]
35. [35] European Telecommunications Standards Institute ETSI EN 302 307 V1.1.2., "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB): Second generation framing structure, channel coding and modulation systems for broadcasting, interactive services, news gathering and other broadband satellite applications", 2006.
36. [36] S. Kavianirad, A. Rizaner, and H. Amca, "Channel Estimation and Equalization of DVB-T in Fast Fading Multipath Channels", Lecture Notes on Information Theory Vol. 3, No. 2, Dec. 2015. [DOI:10.18178/lnit.3.2.81-85]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Signal and Data Processing